The Charge Field and Dissipative Structures

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The Charge Field and Dissipative Structures

Post by Cr6 on Fri Jan 08, 2016 4:11 am

Perhaps some aspects of this theory could be useful for diagramming Molecule structures and the Charge Field:
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dissipative_system
http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/prigogine.html

A dissipative structure is characterized by the spontaneous appearance of symmetry breaking (anisotropy) and the formation of complex, sometimes chaotic, structures where interacting particles exhibit long range correlations. The term dissipative structure was coined by Russian-Belgian physical chemist Ilya Prigogine, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977 for his pioneering work on these structures. The dissipative structures considered by Prigogine have dynamical régimes that can be regarded as thermodynamically steady states, and sometimes at least can be described by suitable extremal principles in non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

Examples in everyday life include convection, turbulent flow, cyclones, hurricanes and living organisms. Less common examples include lasers, Bénard cells, and the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction.[1]

One way of mathematically modeling a dissipative system is given in the article on wandering sets: it involves the action of a group on a measurable set.

Dissipative systems can also be used as a tool to study economic systems and complex systems.[2] For example, a dissipative system involving self-assembly of nanowires has been used as a model to understand the relationship between entropy generation and the robustness of biological systems.[3]


Last edited by Cr6 on Fri Jan 08, 2016 4:35 am; edited 1 time in total

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Re: The Charge Field and Dissipative Structures

Post by Cr6 on Fri Jan 08, 2016 4:26 am

Ilya Prigogine, Chaos, and Dissipative Structures

Prigogine developed the concept of “dissipative structures” to describe the coherent space-time structures that form in open systems in which an exchange of matter and energy occurs between a system and its environment. Ilya Prigogine received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977 for “his contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theories of dissipative structures.” …

Prigogine’s primary interest was in nonequilibrium irreversible phenomena because in these systems the arrow of time becomes manifest.

Prigogine viewed the arrow of time and irreversibility as playing a constructive role in nature. For him the arrow of time was essential to the existence of biological systems, which contain highly organized irreversible structures. Prigogine’s first major work on irreversible systems was his theorem of minimum entropy production which was applicable to nonequilibrium stationary states near equilibrium. ...
Prigogine next began to work on far-from-equilibrium irreversible phenomena, both in hydrodynamic systems and chemical systems. Such systems, because of nonlinear interactions, can form spatial and temporal structures (dissipative structures) that can exist as long as the system is held far from equilibrium due to a continual flow of energy or matter through the system. …

Irreversible systems have an arrow of time which appears to be incompatible with Newtonian and quantum dynamics, which are reversible theories. This incompatibility of the reversible foundations of science with the irreversible behavior that is actually observed in chemical, hydrodynamic, and biological systems remains one of the great mysteries of science. What is the origin of the arrow of time? Is it a fundamental property of nature, or is it only an illusion? Prigogine’s view was that it must be a fundamental property of nature. In the 1950s, he began to work on the foundations of statistical mechanics and the question of how to reconcile Newtonian mechanics with an irreversible world. …

The Newtonian foundations of equilibrium statistical mechanics require that the Newtonian dynamics be chaotic. Prigogine’s early work at UT was focused on the problem of dissipative structures, but in later years he became more and more involved with the problem of reconciling the arrow of time with Newtonian and quantum dynamics. …

While working with non-equilibrium chemical systems, it was a natural step to extend concepts found in these systems to complex social and economic systems. Prigogine is considered one of the founders of complexity science.'1

1 Edited excerpt from In Memoriam: Ilya Prigogine, The University of Texas at Austin

http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/prigogine.html

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Re: The Charge Field and Dissipative Structures

Post by Cr6 on Fri Jan 08, 2016 4:34 am

http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/scientists/prigogine/

Ilya Prigogine

Prigogine discounts Boltzmann's work on the second law, which Eddington called the "Arrow of Time"

Ilya Prigogine was a Belgian physical chemist who won the Nobel prize for investigating the irreversibility of processes in complex physical systems that are far from equilibrium conditions.

The physics equations describing classical dynamical motions are time reversible. One can replace the time variable t by negative time -t in the equations (reversing the time) and they remain equally valid. For example, if time were reversed, the earth would revolve around the sun in the opposite direction, but that seems quite acceptable.

However, many everyday processes cannot be reversed. If time were reversed, the steam (visible as water vapor) coming out of a kettle boiling water on the stove would instead go back into the kettle. It would look like a film played backwards. With time reversed, a glass shattering on the floor would miraculously reassemble its shards flying in all directions and rise back up onto the table. No such processes are ever seen in nature.

Prigogine's main research was to study the irreversibility of these processes.

It is now generally recognized that in many important fields of research a state of true thermodynamic equilibrium is only attained in exceptional conditions. Experiments with radioactive tracers, for example, have shown that the nucleic acids contained in living cells continuously exchange matter with their surroundings. It is also well known that the steady flow of energy which originates in the sun and the stars prevents the atmosphere of the earth or stars from reaching a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

Obviously then, the majority of the phenomena studied in biology, meteorology, astrophysics and other subjects are irreversible processes which take place outside the equilibrium state.

These few examples may serve to illustrate the urgent need for an extension of the methods of thermodynamics so as to include irreversible processes.

(Introduction to Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes, 1955, p.v)

Prigogine was unhappy with the work of Ludwig Boltzmann which showed how macroscopic irreversibility could arise from microscopic reversibility as a result of statistical considerations. To be sure, Joseph Loschmidt's reversibility paradox and Ernst Zermelo's recurrence paradox prevented Boltzmann's irreversibility from being anything but statistical.

He was also unhappy with classical dynamics, because Newton's equations are "time-reversible." He maintained that Erwin Schrödinger's deterministic wave function implied that even quantum mechanics is time reversible, which it is not. Quantum events lead to the "collapse of the wave function" which is irreversible.

Prigogine was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1977 for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of what he called "dissipative structures." These are physical or chemical systems in far from equilibrium" conditions that appear to develop "order out of chaos" and look to be "self-organizing." Like biological systems, matter and energy (of low entropy) flows through the "dissipative" structure. It is primarily the energy and negative entropy that is "dissipated."

This similarity to biological systems (in just one very important thermodynamic respect) was exploited by Prigogine to say he had discovered "new laws of nature" that could connect the natural sciences to the human sciences. Dissipation also implies irreversibility, a very important characteristic of life.

Prigogine had no physical explanation for irreversibility - beyond the fact that his physical "dissipative structures" and biological systems - exhibited it. He generally attacked classical Newtonian dynamics as being time reversible and thus providing no understanding of time. His understanding of time was based on the work of Henri Bergson and the uneven flow of time Bergson called "duration."

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Re: The Charge Field and Dissipative Structures

Post by Cr6 on Fri Jan 08, 2016 4:45 am

Duration (philosophy)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duration_%28philosophy%29

In An Introduction to Metaphysics, (Henri) Bergson presents three images of duration. The first is of two spools, one unrolling to represent the continuous flow of ageing as one feels oneself moving toward the end of one's life-span, the other rolling up to represent the continuous growth of memory which, for Bergson, equals consciousness. No two successive moments are identical, for the one will always contain the memory left by the other. A person with no memory might experience two identical moments but, Bergson says, that person's consciousness would thus be in a constant state of death and rebirth, which he identifies with unconsciousness.[9] The image of two spools, however, is of a homogeneous and commensurable thread, whereas, according to Bergson, no two moments can be the same, hence duration is heterogeneous.

Bergson then presents the image of a spectrum of a thousand gradually changing shades with a line of feeling running through them, being both affected by and maintaining each of the shades. Yet even this image is inaccurate and incomplete, for it represents duration as a fixed and complete spectrum with all the shades spatially juxtaposed, whereas duration is incomplete and continuously growing, its states not beginning or ending but intermingling.[9][10]

“ Instead, let us imagine an infinitely small piece of elastic, contracted, if that were possible, to a mathematical point. Let us draw it out gradually in such a way as to bring out of the point a line which will grow progressively longer. Let us fix our attention not on the line as line, but on the action which traces it. Let us consider that this action, in spite of its duration, is indivisible if one supposes that it goes on without stopping; that, if we intercalate a stop in it, we make two actions of it instead of one and that each of these actions will then be the indivisible of which we speak; that it is not the moving act itself which is never indivisible, but the motionless line it lays down beneath it like a track in space. Let us take our mind off the space subtending the movement and concentrate solely on the movement itself, on the act of tension or extension, in short, on pure mobility. This time we shall have a more exact image of our development in duration. ”

— Henri Bergson, The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics, pages 164 to 165.

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