Mathis Clone

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Mathis Clone

Post by LloydK on Fri Jul 28, 2017 5:02 pm

Hu's Atomic model looks similar to Miles' atomic model. See Cubic atomic model - by Franklin Hu at http://vixra.org/pdf/1303.0184v1.pdf . I've linked to his model before. Hu also references another scientist who has come to a lot of the same conclusions as Miles. That's James Carter and his site is http://living-universe.com/ . There are a number of papers there. This one looks especially interesting: Four New Laws for the Measurement of Force and Motion at http://living-universe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/4-Four-New-Laws.pdf

He has a section on each of his new laws with these titles:
Principle of the Absolute Motion of Photon Mass;
Principle of Absolute Gravitational Force and Motion;
Principle of Electron/Proton Mass Transformation;
The Circlon Shape of Electrons, Protons, and Photons.

He concludes that photons have mass and radius and that gravity is due to expansion of matter. His explanation of the latter is easier for me to understand and find plausible than Miles' explanations are. That doesn't mean I greatly understand and accept his explanation, but it seems more promising to me. So here is the section on gravity.

The Principle of Absolute Gravitational Force and Motion
_The principle of absolute gravitational force and motion is directly opposite to but mechanically and mathematically complementary to General Relativity theory’s metaphysical assumption of equivalent gravitational force and motion.
_Gravity either points up or down and this determines whether gravity is a push or a pull.
_Newton made the arbitrary choice that gravity was the downward pull of an attraction and Einstein assumed it to be the downward push of the curving spacetime continuum.
_Neither was willing to consider that gravity was the upward push that they had both always felt as children and measured as adults.
_Mathematically, gravity’s calculations for its dynamics are equivalent and come out the same whether one imagines the direction for the force and motion of gravity to be up or down.
_The first principle to be determined for any theory describing gravity must be the measurement of the direction and magnitude of its force and motion.
_Ignoring all measurements to the contrary, Newton imagined and then postulated that the force creating the observed motion of falling bodies was a pull directed downward toward Earth’s center.
_Newton offered no physical explanation that could account for this downward pull of gravity.
_Some three hundred years later, Einstein constructed a very precise and complex mathematical system that filled the whole universe with varying quantities of gravitational potential forces that were connected together with an otherwise undetectable gravitational field.
_In his system, all mass in the universe was directly connected by this potentially infinite and eternal gravitational spacetime continuum field.
_Unlike Einstein’s imaginary choice for gravity’s nature and direction, the scientific method of measurement, with its guiding principles of cause and effect, does not permit such an arbitrary choice for the direction of gravitational force and motion.
_Since the readings of accelerometers are the basis of experimental truth in all of physics, the measurement of gravity’s true upward force and motion must be considered as absolute and there is no physical reason to believe that gravity is either a downward push or pull.
_It is always measured to be an upward push!
_Contrary to Newton’s and Einstein’s metaphysical theories, this physical principle of upward gravitational force and motion is not a theory of gravity because it makes no assumption for an unmeasured force.
_This is a principle of measurement for gravity’s force and motion and no assumptions are made other than the accuracy of the instruments.
_From this simple experiment, we can imagine and learn that we have always been able to feel Earth’s upward force and motion with our own sense of balance.
_We must now realize that the force of gravity is the upward push from the ground that we have always felt rather than a downward pull that we have always only imagined.
_Newton and Einstein’s beliefs in gravity’s downward direction are just their ideas for an imaginary downward force that produces a calculated but unmeasured downward acceleration in falling bodies.
_Whether this force is imagined to be a push or a pull, the postulated changing motions of falling bodies cannot be directly measured in any way.
_This motion can only be measured indirectly with the Doppler effect of a traffic radar gun but such a measurement only determines the relative velocity changes between the falling body and the ground and not the intrinsic changing motion of either.
_However, the readings of accelerometers always show that the absolute direction and nature of gravitational force is an upward push.
_Newton and Einstein spent their whole lives knowing with their bodies that the direction of gravity’s force and motion was up.
_Each of their subconscious minds constantly directed their muscles to maintain a position of balance with the upward force of gravity that was monitored by accelerometers in their inner ears.
_They both always felt the true push of gravity within their senses of balance and they certainly understood this pushing force completely as infants and children.
_However, as they became adults, they were able to use the imagination of their conscious minds to ignore the sensual feelings of their subconscious minds that constantly adjusted the balance their bodies to upward gravitational force and motion.
_They consciously imagined a downward pull instead of the upward push that they had always felt.
_Once they had invented their metaphysical equations to calculate and quantify this pull, they imagined it stretching across the universe.
_They seemed to forget completely the upward push of gravity that they felt as children before they ever began theorizing about a downward gravitational pull.
_Except for this simple reversal of the direction of gravitational force and motion, the principle of gravitational expansion of mass, space, and time is structurally identical to General Relativity in terms of the results of calculations for the measurement of physical events.
_In both systems, gravity is explained as changes in the geometry of mass, space and time.
_In general relativity theory, it is the geometry of a constantly curving spacetime continuum that surrounds inert and unchanging bodies of mass and pushes them together.
_In the principle of the gravitational expansion of mass, space, time it is the geometry of mass and time that change, while space remains an absolute, constant, eternal and dimensionless imaginary void.
_All measurements and calculations for falling bodies and orbiting satellites come out the same whether you believe gravity is a local expansion of atoms or an intimate non-local connection between all atoms in the universe.
_The only “connection” between distant atoms in the Living-Universe is the requirement of Circlon Synchronicity that all matter and photons expand gravitationally at exactly the same rate.
_Earth and the moon expand toward one another at their inherent escape/surface velocities at the same rate that the moon’s orbital velocity carries it away.

LloydK

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Hydrogen Spectrum

Post by LloydK on Sun Aug 06, 2017 2:45 pm

Hydrogen Spectrum
http://living-universe.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/10-Hydrogen-Spectrum.pdf
© 2017 by James Carter

[This is interesting because Carter uses a base 8 number system for these equations. He says the results are better looking than in base 10. My guess is that it's because the photons etc double in size for each added spin level. Note: For superscripts I use ^ and for subscripts I use _.]

The Discovery of the Hydrogen Spectrum by James Carter

In 1996, I found a list of the first few photons in the Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series of Hydrogen’s spectrum. After a few false starts, I was able to put together a simple mathematical system that could calculate the wavelength of each photon in the Hydrogen spectrum. The thermal radiation of Hydrogen’s spectra exists in many different series of precise photon wavelengths. The first 16 photons of the first nine series are illustrated in the chart Hydrogen’s First 144 Photons. The first of these groups is the Lyman series with photons in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum. The next group is the Balmer series with most of its photons in the visible portion of the spectrum. These groups of photons from Hydrogen and the other elements allows spectra of distant stars to be analyzed in order to determine their chemical composition. One example of this is that Helium was actually identified as an unknown element on the sun before it was discovered here on Earth. Each group is an endless series of photons with smaller and smaller wavelengths beginning at l_1 and culminating at l_∞ . The most energetic photon possible for the Lyman series is the intrinsic photon Ly l_∞ of Hydrogen. The energy of the intrinsic photon represents the total ionization energy between a proton and an electron. The formula invented to calculate Hydrogen’s intrinsic wavelength is Ly l_∞ = 4πa_o / a = 9.1176 x 10^-8 m. (Wavelength is equal to 4 pi times the Bohr radius divided by the fine structure constant). The rest of Hydrogen’s other series of thermal photons form endless groups of photons with longer and longer wavelengths that can all be calculated with variations on this formula.

The Hydrogen atom feeds on angular momentum. When an electron couples to a proton the pair shares the angular momentum contained in their relative velocity before they unite. The centripetal force between the electron and proton pulls the atom down toward the Bohr radius a_o . The ionization energy generated by this force is released in a series of photons that each removes a unit of angular momentum Iω = M E a_o αC from the atom. The atom reaches a ground state at the Bohr radius when it no longer has a unit of angular momentum Iω = mλC/2π to produce a photon when the tertiary coils of the proton and electron reach their equilibrium ratio of 1/√a. A ground-state atom remains dormant and cannot produce more photons until it can acquire more energy and units of angular momentum from contact with other atoms or the absorption of a photon.

Hydrogen’s First 144 Photons
The first four values at the top of this chart are in the octal system of counting. The octal system has far more beautiful equations than the decimal system when it comes to calculating the circlon model photons of the hydrogen atom. As this chart is carried farther out in octal, the values and equations become more and more symmetrical and repetitive.

Hydrogen’s First 144 Photon Fractions with Base Eight Numbers

Lyman 1; (1+1)^2; 4
Balmer 2; (2+2)^2; 20
Paschen 3; 3^3; 33
Brackett 4; (4+4)^2; 100
Pfund 5; (5+5)^2; 144
#6 Orbit 6; (6+6)^2; 214
#7 Orbit 7; (7+7)^2; 304
#10 Orbit 10; (10+10)^2; 400 [10 base 8 = 8]
#11 Orbit 11; (11+11)^2; 504 [11 base 8 = 9]

1 λ_∞=4πa_ο/α
2 λ_∞=16πa_ο/α
3 λ_∞=27πa_ο/α
4 λ_∞=64πa_ο/α
5 λ_∞=100πa_ο/α
6 λ_∞=144πa_ο/α
7 λ_∞=196πa_ο/α
8 λ_∞=256πa_ο/α
9 λ_∞=324πa_ο/α

Ly λ_∞ = 1 λ_∞(Μ_e/Μ_p +1)
Ba λ_∞ = 2 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
Pa λ_∞ = 3 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
Br λ_∞ = 4 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
Pf λ_∞ = 5 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
#6 λ_∞ = 6 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
#7 λ_∞ = 7 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
#8 λ_∞ = 8 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)
#9 λ_∞ = 9 λ_∞(Μ_e/2Μ_p +1)

Ly λ_∞ = 911.76334Å; obs (911.75348Å)
Ba λ_∞ = 3,646.061Å; obs (3,645.982Å)
Pa λ_∞ = 8,203.637Å; obs (8,203.569Å)
Br λ_∞ =14,584.243Å; obs (14,584.173Å)
Pf λ_∞ =22,787.880Å; obs (22,787.803Å)
#6 λ_∞ = 32,814.547Å; obs (32,814.463Å)
#7 λ_∞ = 44,664.245Å; obs (44,664.153Å)
#8 λ_∞ = 58,336.972Å; obs (58,336.874Å)
#9 λ_∞ = 73,832.731Å; obs (73,832.627Å)

1.0000108143
1.0000216677
1.0000082891
1.0000047997
1.000003379
1.00000255985
1.0000014086
1.0000020598
1.0000016799

1/1=13.5983175 eV
1/4=3.3995794 eV
1/9=1.5109242 eV
1/16=.84989484 eV
1/25=.5439327 eV
1/36=.37773141 eV
1/49=.277516683 eV
1/64=.212473711 eV
1/81=.16788046 eV

Ly λ_1 = 2^2/2^2-1 = 4/3
Ly λ_2 = 3^2/3^2-1 = 9/8
Ly λ_3 = 4^2/4^2-1 = 16/15
Ly λ_4 = 5^2/5^2-1 = 25/24
Ly λ_5 = 6^2/6^2-1 = 36/35
Ly λ_6 = 7^2/7^2-1 = 49/48
Ly λ_7 = 8^2/8^2-1 = 64/63
Ly λ_8 = 9^2/9^2-1 = 81/80
Ly λ_9 = 10^2/10^2-1 = 100/99
Ly λ_10 = 11^2/11^2-1 = 121/120
Ly λ_11 = 12^2/12^2-1 = 144/143
Ly λ_12 = 13^2/13^2-1 = 169/168
Ly λ_13 = 14^2/14^2-1 = 196/195
Ly λ_14 = 15^2/15^2-1 = 225/224
Ly λ_15 = 16^2/16^2-1 = 256/255
Ly λ_16 = 17^2/17^2-1 = 289/288

Ba λ_1 = 3^2/3^2-4 = 9/5
Ba λ_2 = 4^2/4^2-4 = 4/3
Ba λ_3 = 5^2/5^2-4 = 25/21
Ba λ_4 = 6^2/6^2-4 = 9/8
Ba λ_5 = 7^2/7^2-4 = 49/45
Ba λ_6 = 8^2/8^2-4 = 16/15
Ba λ_7 = 9^2/9^2-4 = 81/77
Ba λ_8 = 10^2/10^2-4 = 25/24
Ba λ_9 = 11^2/11^2-4 = 121/117
Ba λ_10 = 12^2/12^2-4 = 36/35
Ba λ_11 = 13^2/13^2-4 = 169/165
Ba λ_12 = 14^2/14^2-4 = 49/48
Ba λ_13 = 15^2/15^2-4 = 225/221
Ba λ_14 = 16^2/16^2-4 = 64/63
Ba λ_15 = 17^2/17^2-4 = 289/285
Ba λ_16 = 18^2/18^2-4 = 81/80

Pa λ_1 = 4^2/4^2-9 = 16/7
Pa λ_2 = 5^2/5^2-9 = 25/16
Pa λ_3 = 6^2/6^2-9 = 4/3
Pa λ_4 = 7^2/7^2-9 = 49/33
Pa λ_5 = 8^2/8^2-9 = 64/55
Pa λ_6 = 9^2/9^2-9 = 9/8
Pa λ_7 = 10^2/10^2-9 = 100/91
Pa λ_8 = 11^2/11^2-9 = 121/112
Pa λ_9 = 12^2/12^2-9 = 16/15
Pa λ_10 = 13^2/13^2-9 = 169/160
Pa λ_11 = 14^2/14^2-9 = 196/187
Pa λ_12 = 15^2/15^2-9 = 25/24
Pa λ_13 = 16^2/16^2-9 = 256/247
Pa λ_14 = 17^2/17^2-9 = 289/280
Pa λ_15 = 18^2/18^2-9 = 36/35
Pa λ_16 = 19^2/19^2-9 = 361/352

Br λ_1 = 5^2/5^2-16 = 25/9
Br λ_2 = 6^2/6^2-16 = 9/5
Br λ_3 = 7^2/7^2-16 = 49/33
Br λ_4 = 8^2/8^2-16 = 4/3
Br λ_5 = 9^2/9^2-16 = 81/65
Br λ_6 = 10^2/10^2-16 = 25/21
Br λ_7 = 11^2/11^2-16 = 121/105
Br λ_8 = 12^2/12^2-16 = 9/8
Br λ_9 = 13^2/13^2-16 = 169/153
Br λ_10 = 14^2/14^2-16 = 49/45
Br λ_11 = 15^2/15^2-16 = 225/209
Br λ_12 = 16^2/16^2-16 = 16/15
Br λ_13 = 17^2/17^2-16 = 289/273
Br λ_14 = 18^2/18^2-16 = 81/77
Br λ_15 = 19^2/19^2-16 = 361/345
Br λ_16 = 20^2/20^2-16 = 25/24

Pf λ_1 = 6^2/6^2-25 = 36/11
Pf λ_2 = 7^2/7^2-25 = 49/24
Pf λ_3 = 8^2/8^2-25 = 64/39
Pf λ_4 = 9^2/9^2-25 = 81/56
Pf λ_5 = 10^2/10^2-25 = 4/3
Pf λ_6 = 11^2/11^2-25 = 121/96
Pf λ_7 = 12^2/12^2-25 = 144/119
Pf λ_8 = 13^2/13^2-25 = 169/144
Pf λ_9 = 14^2/14^2-25 = 196/171
Pf λ_10 = 15^2/15^2-25 = 9/8
Pf λ_11 = 16^2/16^2-25 = 256/231
Pf λ_12 = 17^2/17^2-25 = 289/264
Pf λ_13 = 18^2/18^2-25 = 324/299
Pf λ_14 = 19^2/19^2-25 = 361/336
Pf λ_15 = 20^2/20^2-25 = 16/15
Pf λ_16 = 21^2/21^2-25 = 441/416

#6 λ_1 = 7^2/-36 = 49/13
#6 λ_2 = 8^2/-36 = 16/7
#6 λ_3 = 9^2/-36 = 9/5
#6 λ_4 = 10^2/-36 = 25/16
#6 λ_5 = 11^2/-36 = 121/85
#6 λ_6 = 12^2/-36 = 4/3
#6 λ_7 = 13^2/-36 = 169/133
#6 λ_8 = 14^2/-36 = 49/40
#6 λ_9 = 15^2/-36 = 25/21
#6 λ_10 = 16^2/-36 = 64/55
#6 λ_11 = 17^2/-36 = 289/253
#6 λ_12 = 18^2/-36 = 9/8
#6 λ_13 = 19^2/-36 = 361/325
#6 λ_14 = 20^2/-36 = 100/91
#6 λ_15 = 21^2/-36 = 49/45
#6 λ_16 = 22^2/-36 = 121/112

#7 λ_1 = 8^2/8^2-49 = 64/15
#7 λ_2 = 9^2/9^2-49 = 81/32
#7 λ_9 = 10^2/10^2-49 = 100/51
#7 λ_3 = 11^2/11^2-49 = 121/72
#7 λ_4 = 12^2/12^2-49 = 144/95
#7 λ_5 = 13^2/13^2-49 = 169/120
#7 λ_6 = 14^2/14^2-49 = 4/3
#7 λ_7 = 15^2/15^2-49 = 225/176
#7 λ_8 = 16^2/16^2-49 = 256/207
#7 λ_10 = 17^2/17^2-49 = 289/240
#7 λ_11 = 18^2/18^2-49 = 324/275
#7 λ_12 = 19^2/19^2-49 = 361/312
#7 λ_13 = 20^2/20^2-49 = 400/351
#7 λ_14 = 21^2/21^2-49 = 9/8
#7 λ_15 = 22^2/22^2-49 = 484/435
#7 λ_16 = 23^2/23^2-49 = 529/480

#8 λ_1 = 9^2/9^2-64 = 81/17
#8 λ_2 = 10^2/10^2-64 = 25/9
#8 λ_3 = 11^2/11^2-64 = 121/57
#8 λ_4 = 12^2/12^2-64 = 9/5
#8 λ_5 = 13^2/13^2-64 = 169/105
#8 λ_6 = 14^2/14^2-64 = 49/33
#8 λ_7 = 15^2/15^2-64 = 225/161
#8 λ_8 = 16^2/16^2-64 = 4/3
#8 λ_9 = 17^2/17^2-64 = 289/225
#8 λ_10 = 18^2/18^2-64 = 81/65
#8 λ_11 = 19^2/19^2-64 = 361/297
#8 λ_12 = 20^2/20^2-64 = 25/21
#8 λ_13 = 21^2/21^2-64 = 441/377
#8 λ_14 = 22^2/22^2-64 = 121/105
#8 λ_15 = 23^2/23^2-64 = 529/465
#8 λ_16 = 24^2/24^2-64 = 9/8

#9 λ_1 = 10^2/10^2-81 = 100/19
#9 λ_2 = 11^2/11^2-81 = 121/40
#9 λ_3 = 12^2/12^2-81 = 16/7
#9 λ_4 = 13^2/13^2-81 = 169/88
#9 λ_5 = 14^2/14^2-81 = 96/115
#9 λ_6 = 15^2/15^2-81 = 25/16
#9 λ_7 = 16^2/16^2-81 = 256/175
#9 λ_8 = 17^2/17^2-81 = 289/208
#9 λ_9 = 18^2/18^2-81 = 4/3
#9 λ_10 = 19^2/19^2-81 = 361/280
#9 λ_11 = 20^2/20^2-81 = 400/319
#9 λ_12 = 21^2/21^2-81 = 49/40
#9 λ_13 = 22^2/22^2-81 = 484/403
#9 λ_14 = 23^2/23^2-81 = 529/448
#9 λ_15 = 24^2/24^2-81 = 64/55
#9 λ_16 = 25^2/25^2-81 = 625/544

-----

λ_∞ = 4πa_ο/α = 9.11267052x10^-8m
Μ_e/M_p = .000544617
(Μ_e/2M_p + 1) = 1.0002723085
λ_∞/M_e = .00002661124
λ_∞/M_p = .000000014492933

λ_∞ = photon mass = 13.5983175 eV
M_e = electron mass = 510,999.06 eV
Μ_p = proton mass = 938,272,310 eV

Octal Numbers
The radiation of the circlon model atom is represented in these 144 circlon model equations. The energy, momentum and wavelength values of each of these equations are very close approximations to the measured spectral photon emissions of the Hydrogen atom. This spectrum begins with hydrogen’s intrinsic photon
l ∞ = 4πa o / a = 9.11x10 -8 m and extends to infinity with photon equations of increasingly longer wavelengths.

This chart shows the individual wavelength of each of the photons that makes up a black-body distribution curve. It is basically this same group of photons that made up the 2.7 ̊K CBR except that the CBR contains some spectra from the other elements.
This list of photons is a discovery and not a theory. The photons are measurements and the equations are theories for their values.

LloydK

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