New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

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New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 22, 2014 9:43 pm

Found this of interest:
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This 2000-Year-Old Pigment Can Eliminate The Third Dimension

estheringlis-arkell

Yesterday 8:00am

This 2000-Year-Old Pigment Can Eliminate The Third Dimension

Han purple is an ancient pigment that wasn't reconstructed by modern chemists until 1992. After the chemists got done with it, it was the physicists' turn. Han purple, they found, eliminates an entire dimension. It makes waves go two-dimensional!

The Chemistry of Han Purple

You'll see Han purple on the famous terracotta warriors surrounding the tomb of the first emperor of China, or on ancient pottery and other works of art. Where you won't see it is on anything made between 220 A.D. and 1992, because after the pigment disappeared it took 1700 years to re-discover it. Elisabeth FitzHugh, a conservator at the Smithsonian, pinned down the chemical composition of the pigment and announced it was a barium copper silicate. (The paper describing the discovery is a fun read. It starts by pointing out the inferiority of other ancient purple pigments, which tended to be closer to red than purple. It also stresses that Tyrian purple, made from sea snails, was a textile dye, not a pigment, and that it could range anywhere from "reddish-blue to purplish-violet." Take that, Phoenicians!)

Exactly how some inventor stumbled on a way to make the pigment is still a matter of debate. An early theory, not believed by many, is that the Chinese learned how to make purple pigment from the Egyptians. Egyptian purple pigment seems to be similar, but the chemical formulas don't add up — Egyptians used calcium instead of barium. It's also not an easy process to pass from one culture to another. To get the elements to melt together, they have to be heated to about 850-1000 °C.

Most researchers think that because it contains both silicon and barium Han purple was a by-product of the glass-making process. Barium makes glass shinier and cloudy, which means this pigment could be the work of early alchemists trying to synthesize white jade.

Han Purple and the Third Dimension

Barium copper-silicate doesn't just have archaeologists and chemists intrigued. At normal temperatures, it's an insulator and is nonmagnetic. Along with its many fine properties - prettiness, historical importance, a hint of aristocratic style — barium copper-silicat has many electrons, some of which spin up and some of which are spin down.

Something unusual happens as the temperature drops and as a magnetic field is applied, although the temperature has to drop pretty far, going down to between one and three degrees Kelvin, and the magnetic field has to be about 800,000 times the strength of Earth's magnetic field. The results are worth it — the electrons seem to merge, taking on one spin, and acting as one electron.

That sounds like an ordinary superconductor, you say. Then you're as foolish as a Phoenician in sub-par purple! Han purple still has a trick up its sleeve. Drop the temperature some more and something happens to the magnetic wave traveling through the substance. At higher temperatures, it propagates like a regular wave, traveling in three dimensions. Get under one degree Kelvin, and it no longer has a vertical component. It propagates in two dimensions only.

Scientists think that this has something to do with the structure of barium copper silicate. It's components are arranged like layers of tiles, so they don't stack up neatly. Each layers' tiles are slightly out of sync with the layer below them. This may frustrate the wave and force it to go two dimensional.

Anyone wonder if ancient physicists discovered this? And if the secret to making Han purple was lost because they waved themselves into two dimensions?

Terracotta Army Images: David Castor.

http://io9.com/this-2000-year-old-pigment-can-eliminate-the-third-dime-1661476168

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Re: New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 22, 2014 9:50 pm


Stanford Report, June 2, 2006

3-D insulator called Han Purple loses a dimension to enter magnetic 'Flatland'

Dye first made 2,500 years ago is focus of quantum spin study

By Dawn Levy
John D. Griffin, Michael W. Davidson, Sara Vetteth and Suchitra E. Sebastian Rubik's cube

Magnetic order in a silicate forms like pieces of a Rubik’s cube clicking into place.

In a scrambled Rubik's cube, colorful squares clash without order. As pieces click into place in the hands of a skilled puzzle solver, the individual characters of squares dissolve as solid faces of uniform color emerge.

In the same way, barium copper silicate—also known as "Han Purple," a vivid pigment used in ancient China—transforms from a nonmagnetic, disordered insulator into a magnetic, ordered condensate under conditions of extreme cold and high magnetic field. The components that "click into place" to form an entirely new phase are the electron orientations of atoms, or "spins," described by their quantum state as "up" or "down."

Now, scientists at Stanford, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Institute for Solid State Physics (University of Tokyo) have discovered that at the abrupt lowest temperature transition at which the silicate enters a new state—called the quantum critical point—the three-dimensional material "loses" a dimension to form a Flatland, of sorts. Just as in the 1884 novella Flatland that posited a planar world, the spins strongly interact only in two dimensions. Effects from the third dimension are negligible. Their work appears in the June 1 issue of Nature.

First author Suchitra Sebastian of the Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials and of the Applied Physics Department conducted the experiments for her doctoral dissertation in collaboration with co-authors Ian Fisher, an assistant professor of applied physics at Stanford who was Sebastian's thesis adviser; scientist Neil Harrison, who was on Sebastian's thesis committee, and scientist Marcelo Jaime, postdoctoral fellow Peter Sharma and theorist Cristian Batista, all of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) at its Los Alamos National Laboratory campus; scientist Luis Balicas of the NHMFL's Florida State University campus; and Associate Professor Naoki Kawashima of the University of Tokyo.

"We have shown, for the first time, that the collective behavior in a bulk three-dimensional material can actually occur in just two dimensions," Fisher said. "Low dimensionality is a key ingredient in many exotic theories that purport to account for various poorly understood phenomena, including high-temperature superconductivity, but until now there were no clear examples of 'dimensional reduction' in real materials."

Said Harrison: "What these findings in barium copper silicate demonstrate is something very fundamental that may provide the key toward understanding the role of dimensionality in quantum critical phenomena. This may be a crucial step for understanding the required properties of new materials, including more exotic superconductors, perhaps even ones with superconductance at higher temperatures."

In the normal, or insulating, state of the silicate, a pair of "up" and "down" spins cancel out each other to produce no net order. But in the magnetic state, ordering occurs between neighboring electron pairs in all three dimensions. At magnetic fields above 23 tesla (800,000 times that of the Earth's magnetic field) and temperatures near absolute zero, the silicate enters a rare state, called a Bose-Einstein condensate, in which electron spins move as a collective whole.

From frustration to fruition

At a critical point, the ordered spins in the condensate appear to lose a dimension. Think of the silicate as stacked layers. Suddenly, the spins in one layer cannot influence those of neighboring layers. Magnetic waves travel only along flat planes rather than throughout the entirety of the three-dimensional material.

Batista proposed a theoretical explanation for this strange behavior: It may be due to an effect called "geometrical frustration." In the crystal structure of barium copper silicate, individual copper atoms in the silicate layers are not stacked directly above each other, but instead, are shifted over in each layer in zigzag fashion. Near the critical point, the quantum behavior of the spins in such a layered arrangement may "frustrate" one layer from influencing neighboring layers.

The experimental techniques Sebastian and researchers used to show this effect allowed them to tune high magnetic fields at the lowest experimentally accessible temperatures to precisely access the immediate vicinity of the quantum critical point and explore new physics. World-class facilities and technical support at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Tallahassee, Fla., made this possible. Before this discovery, it had not been possible to experimentally achieve this level of proximity to the quantum critical point in Bose-Einstein condensates.

"Magnetic moments associated with the electron spin seem to play a crucial role in the behavior of high-temperature superconductor materials," Batista said. "Fluctuations of the magnetic moments affect the flow of current-carrying electrons in a nontrivial way, in particular near the quantum critical point, where these fluctuations become very large. By studying the quantum critical behavior of insulating materials (with no current-carrying electrons), we can isolate the magnetic properties and gain a better understanding of their possible behaviors."

The discovery of reduction in dimensions at the quantum critical point in the magnetic insulator barium copper silicate provides a clue to mysterious physical phenomena observed in other materials, such as superconductivity at high temperatures and the anomalous behavior of metallic magnets known as "heavy fermions."

"The holy grail for condensed matter physicists is to make the essential step of understanding the mechanisms that can produce high temperature superconductivity," Harrison said. "The observed dimensional reduction in the Bose-Einstein condensate of barium copper silicate provides a particularly vivid example of the role of dimensionality in condensate physics because it is free from other complications that cloud our understanding of superconducting materials."

While electron charge now transports information in electronic devices, electron spin may someday fulfill the same role in "spintronic" devices.

"Spin currents are capable of carrying far more information than a conventional charge current—which makes them the ideal vehicle for information transport in future applications such as quantum computing," Sebastian said.

Noted Fisher: "Our research group focuses on new materials with unconventional magnetic and electronic properties. Han Purple was first synthesized over 2500 years ago, but we have only recently discovered how exotic its magnetic behavior is. It makes you wonder what other materials are out there that we haven't yet even begun to explore."

Funding for this research came from the National Science Foundation; Laboratory Directed Research and Development support at Los Alamos National Laboratory; the State of Florida, the Department of Energy, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Mustard Seed Foundation.

http://news.stanford.edu/news/2006/june7/flat-060706.html

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Re: New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

Post by Cr6 on Mon Dec 08, 2014 1:36 am

ScienceDaily:  Theorists predict new forms of exotic insulating materials: Six new types?


Date:
February 6, 2014
Source:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Summary:
Topological insulators could exist in six new types not seen before. Topological insulators -- materials whose surfaces can freely conduct electrons even though their interiors are electrical insulators -- have been of great interest to physicists in recent years because of unusual properties that may provide insights into quantum physics. But most analysis of such materials has had to rely on highly simplified models.

Now, a team of researchers at MIT has performed a more detailed analysis that hints at the existence of six new kinds of topological insulators. The work also predicts the materials' physical properties in sufficient detail that it should be possible to identify them unambiguously if they are produced in the lab, the scientists say.

The new findings are reported this week in the journal Science by MIT professor of physics Senthil Todadri, graduate student Chong Wang, and Andrew Potter, a former MIT graduate student who is now a postdoc at the University of California at Berkeley.

"In contrast to conventional insulators, the surface of the topological insulators harbors exotic physics that are interesting both for fundamental physics, and possibly for applications," Senthil says. But attempts to study the properties of these materials have "relied on a highly simplified model in which the electrons inside the solid are treated as though they did not interact with each other." New analytical tools applied by the MIT team now reveal "that there are six, and only six, new kinds of topological insulators that require strong electron-electron interactions."

"The surface of a three-dimensional material is two-dimensional," Senthil says -- which explains why the electrical behavior of the surface of a topological insulator is so different from that of the interior. But, he adds, "The kind of two-dimensional physics that emerges [on these surfaces] can never be in a two-dimensional material. There has to be something inside, otherwise this physics will never occur. That's what's exciting about these materials," which reveal processes that don't show up in other ways.

In fact, Senthil says, this new work based on analysis of such surface phenomena shows that some previous predictions of phenomena in two-dimensional materials "cannot be right."

Since this is a new finding, he says, it is too soon to say what applications these new topological insulators might have. But the analysis provides details on predicted properties that should allow experimentalists to begin to understand the behavior of these exotic states of matter.

"If they exist, we know how to detect them," Senthil says of these new phases. "And we know that they can exist." What this research doesn't yet show, however, is what these new topological insulators' composition might be, or how to go about creating them.

The next step, he says, is to try to predict "what compositions might lead to" these newly predicted phases of topological insulators. "It's an open question now that we need to attack."

Joel Moore, a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, says, "I think it is a very insightful piece of work. It is less about a very complicated calculation than about thinking deeply and abstractly." While much work remains to be done to find or create such materials, he says, "this work provides some clear guidance," revealing that the number of possible states "is remarkably small" and that understanding their properties should not be as complicated as might have been expected.

The research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Simons Foundation.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The original article was written by David L. Chandler. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

   C. Wang, A. C. Potter, T. Senthil. Classification of Interacting Electronic Topological Insulators in Three Dimensions. Science, 2014; 343 (6171): 629 DOI: 10.1126/science.1243326

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140206142125.htm


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Quantum critical behavior in heavy electron materials

Yi-feng Yanga,b,1 and
David Pinesc,1

aBeijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;
bCollaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190, China; and
cSanta Fe Institute and Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

Contributed by David Pines, April 29, 2014 (sent for review March 26, 2014; reviewed by Gilbert George Lonzarich and Zachary Fisk)

Significance

Quantum critical behavior occurs when a material is near a zero temperature phase transition between two ordered forms of matter. Kondo lattice materials, in which itinerant heavy (∼200 bare mass) electrons emerge through the collective hybridization of localized f electrons with background conduction electrons, provide a rich source of experimental information about how, for example, pressure and magnetic fields influence local moment antiferromagnetic order and its boundary with competing fully itinerant heavy electron behavior in the pressure–magnetic field plane. A phenomenological two-fluid model of coupled local moments and itinerant heavy electrons enables us to calculate both and obtain a quantitative account of related quantum critical behavior in two of the best-studied heavy electron materials, CeCoIn5 and YbRh2Si2.
Abstract

Quantum critical behavior in heavy electron materials is typically brought about by changes in pressure or magnetic field. In this paper, we develop a simple unified model for the combined influence of pressure and magnetic field on the effectiveness of the hybridization that plays a central role in the two-fluid description of heavy electron emergence. We show that it leads to quantum critical and delocalization lines that accord well with those measured for CeCoIn5, yields a quantitative explanation of the field and pressure-induced changes in antiferromagnetic ordering and quantum critical behavior measured for YbRh2Si2, and provides a valuable framework for describing the role of magnetic fields in bringing about quantum critical behavior in other heavy electron materials.

http://www.pnas.org/content/111/23/8398

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Re: New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

Post by Cr6 on Mon Dec 08, 2014 1:44 am

I see the Charge Field all over this one:
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Quantum Hall Effect and Topological Insulators



Figure 1. Cartoon depicting the quantum Hall effect with edge states that conduct electrons, shown as half-circle arrows along the boundary. The electrons in the middle or bulk of the material are localized around parent atoms. This region is an insulating state


   Calculated band structure showing the before and after energy levels of the system. The inset shows an example of a trivial (non-topological) insulating state shows a large gap. In this example, the system can be transformed into a topological insulator. Lines appear through the insulating region which can be thought of as pathways ("edge states") for the electron to move from the lower to upper level.

»

The quantum Hall effect is an example of a phenomenon having topological features that can be observed in certain materials under harsh and stringent laboratory conditions (large magnetic field, near absolute zero temperature). To study this phenomenon, scientists apply a large magnetic field to a 2D (sheet) semiconductor. This causes a gap to open between energy bands, and electrons in the bulk material become localized, that is they cannot move freely. One way to visualize this phenomenon (Figure, top panel) is to imagine that the electrons, under the influence of the magnetic field, will be confined to tiny circular orbits. However, the electrons at the interface must move along the edge of the material where they only complete partial trajectories before reaching a boundary of the material. Here, the electrons are not pinned and conduction will occur; the name for these available avenues of travel is ‘edge states.’

Researchers are excited about topological insulators because they can exhibit this type of physics, normally observed only under extreme conditions, without the large external magnetic field. Scientists believe that this is partially due to the enhanced relationship between the electron’s spin, (which can be thought of as a tiny bar magnet), and an induced internal magnetic field. In other words, an electron lives in a natural environment of electric fields, which forces the charged particle to move with some velocity. Due to the laws of electromagnetism, this motion gives rise to a magnetic field, which can affect the behavior of the electron (so-called spin-orbit coupling). When this internal magnetic field is sufficiently large, the situation is similar to that of the externally applied field: the material may be insulating in the bulk and conduct electricity along the edges. In the case of topological insulators, this is called the spin quantum Hall effect.

A distinctive characteristic of topological insulators as compared to the conventional quantum Hall states is that their edge states always occur in counter-propagating pairs. Scientists say that this is due to time-reversal invariance, which requires that the behavior of the system moving forward in time must be identical to that moving backwards in time. Even though the arrow of time matters in everyday life, one can imagine what time-reversal symmetry means by looking at billiard balls moving on a pool table. Without knowing when the cue ball set the other balls in motion, you may not necessarily know whether you were seeing the events run forward or in reverse. In the case of the edge states, this symmetry means that events (and likewise, the conduction channels) in the topological insulator have no preference for a particular direction of time, forwards or backwards. Thus, any feature of the time-reversal-invariant system is bound to have its time-reversed partner, and this yields pairs of oppositely traveling edge states that always go hand-in-hand.
More Reading

“Colloquium: Topological insulators.” M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane. Rev. Mod. Phys.82 3045 (2010)

“The quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators.” Xiao-Liang Qi and Shou-Cheng Zhang, Physics Today, 33 (January 2010)

http://jqi.umd.edu/glossary/quantum-hall-effect-and-topological-insulators


Last edited by Cr6 on Mon Dec 08, 2014 2:00 am; edited 2 times in total

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Re: New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

Post by Cr6 on Mon Dec 08, 2014 1:48 am

Miles Mathis on the Hall Effect:
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93b. The Drude-Sommerfeld Model, and the problem of heat capacity.
http://milesmathis.com/drude.pdf

All this was necessary because they didn't have a model of the nucleus, the charge field, or the real E/M field—and they still don't. All they had when these models were initially being invented and promoted was the electron, so they tried to fit everything to a field of free electrons. Drude showed that worked fairly well up to a certain point, so when it stopped working, they just pasted some imaginary math and fields on top to fill in the holes. This is what Bloch's wave is, and band structure, and so on. All of solid-state physics has been polluted by this imaginary pseudo-physics, and it was all caused by trying to build field equations without defined fields. Because Maxwell's displacement field was never physically assigned, physicists from the early parts of the 20th century had to force-fit electron fields to data, and they did this with math that became completely detached from anything real, anything known, or anything solid. Solid-state physics should long ago have been renamed fudge-state physics.

It seems to work at first because the electrons are following the photons. The electrons are moving in the photon stream, so of course they will go where it goes, in the simplest analysis. It fails because we have photons moving through the lattice to create the defining field, not electrons. Although free electrons do move through the lattice as well, their movement is not what determines through fields, either electrical or magnetic. As we saw in my analysis of a battery circuit, the motion of electrons is only a side effect, one that has misled generations of physicists. To really understand the E/M field, we have to follow the photons, not the electrons. Or, to put it another way, we have to follow Maxwell's displacement field, not his E/M field. The displacement field is the primary field, and it defines all greater motions and fields.

To prove this in the most efficient manner, we will jump ahead to see why the Drude model greatly overestimates the electronic heat capacity of metals. Historically, this is why Sommerfeld had to extend and pad Drude's mechanical model with all the slop we saw above. The question was, “Given the success of Drude's model, why is the heat capacity of metals so low?” In other words, the Drude model is right about thermal conductivity, but wrong about heat capacity. Why?

But now that I have shown how the nucleus recycles charge, we don't need the pathetic Drude-Sommerfeld model anymore. We can throw out all this slop concerning imaginary phonons, changing masses, and vacuum substances, and replace it with physics. We don't need pseudo-potentials, since we can now show the real potentials.
To start with, we can show why Drude's model of free electrons moving through a lattice of real atoms worked fairly well, without any “quantum mechanical” additions. Before Sommerfeld mucked it up, the simple Drude model “provided a very good explanation of DC and AC conductivity in metals, the Hall effect, and thermal conductivity (due to electrons) in metals near room temperature. The model also explains the Wiedemann-Franz law of 1853.” Amazingly, the authors at Wikipedia even tell us why, although they don't know they are they are telling us why:
Historically, the Drude formula was first derived in an incorrect way, namely by assuming that the charge carriers form a ideal gas. We know now that they follow Fermi-Dirac distribution and have appreciable interactions, but amazingly, the result turns out to be the same as Drude model because, as Lev Landau derived in 1957, a gas of interacting particles can be described by a system of almost non-interacting 'quasiparticles' that, in the case of electrons in a metal, can be well modelled by the Drude equation.
...

The same can be said for Bloch waves. Bloch waves are imaginary waves manufactured to fit the data, and then a lot of math is created to fit free electrons to that imaginary wave. Since these old guys thought they were tracking electrons through the lattice, they thought they had to explain how electrons made it through without being scattered and without losing all kinds of energy. The only way they could do that is by letting the electron magically have a zero or negative mass at certain points, or by other hamhanded (and frankly embarrassing) tricks. But since it was always photons that were making it through and carrying the field energy, they didn't need to go to all that trouble. You don't need these tricks to show how photons pass through the lattice, since photons are around 100 million times smaller than electrons. They dodge the lattice more easily. And since charge photons are also channeling through the nucleus (and electrons aren't), even the photons that don't dodge the lattice also make it through.

So it is not “amazing” that “charge carriers” follow the Drude model, since these charge carriers are not electrons but real photons. As such, they do not follow Fermi-Dirac distributions or have appreciable interactions (of the sort they are talking about). As we now know, these photons have appreciable interactions only at the nuclear boundary, and even then most of these interactions are spin (magnetic) interactions, not electrical interactions. Charge photons can be redirected by channeling through the nucleus, but they cannot be stopped or slowed.

To understand this, you will have to study my nuclear papers, noting especially the way charge is channeled through the nucleus. I recommend my latest paper on Period 4, which shows how transition metals channel charge through various channels, creating both electrical and magnetic conductivity. Once you understand this mechanism, you will understand both how Drude's rough model works and why it fails.

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Re: New findings to be explained with the Charge Field

Post by Cr6 on Mon Dec 08, 2014 2:09 am

80b. Maxwell's Equations are also Unified Field Equations
http://milesmathis.com/disp2.pdf
http://milesmathis.com/disp.pdf

I have just discovered that Maxwell's equations are also disguised unified field equations.

To discover this, I had to be sent by a reader to Maxwell's lesser known displacement current. The reader (Steven Oostdijk—an electrical engineer) didn't send me to find what I found, but I thank him nonetheless. It took me about ten seconds to see this, and for alarm bells to go off:

D =ε0E + P

That is Maxwell's equation for the electric displacement field, where E is the electric field intensity, P is the polarization of the medium, and ε0 is the permittivity of free space. The alarm bells went off as soon as I saw ε0, since I have shown in previous papers that the permittivity of free space is misassigned to free space. We should have known that, since free space cannot have any physical characteristics like this. If it did, it would be neither free nor space. In writing the unified field equations, I showed that the constant ε0 actually stands for gravity at the quantum level.* The constant ε0 can be written as 8.85 × 10-12 /s2 , but it can also be written as 2.95 x 10-20 m/s2. Just divide through by c. You will say the dimensions don't work, but they do, as you can see by going to that previous paper. At any rate, in unrelated calculations, I found that same number for the gravity field of the proton. The constant is not the permittivity of free space, it is gravity as created by nucleons.

Of course this means that Maxwell's equation above is already unified. It contains the gravity field at that level, and is therefore another Unified Field Equation, UFE. Since Maxwell used the displacement current equation to modify Ampere's Circuital Law, we can say that Maxwell's equations are unified.


The displacement field equation is also proof of my real charge field, since—as defined by Maxwell— this field is not created by electrons or any other ions. Maxwell's displacement field pre-exists any field created by ions. In fact, if we study Maxwell's use of the displacement field, we find it creates the E/M field. The displacement current has dimensions of density, just as my charge field has, and if we go to Wikipedia, we find this:

The displacement current has an associated magnetic field just as actual currents do. However it is not an electric current of moving charges, but a time-varying electric field.

What does that mean? It means it exists whether or not you have any ions in the field. It is a sub-field to the Electromagnetic Field, and is not equivalent to it. As a matter of straight mechanics, it is the displacement field that creates Electromagnetism, not the reverse. Again, this matches my definition of the charge field. It is the charge field that is primary, and the E/M field that is secondary. Charge is photons, E/M is ions. The photons drive the ions, so they are the fundamental field.

So we already see that Maxwell's displacement field is simply another name for my charge field. And this explains—in yet another way—why the charge field has been undercover for about 150 years. In Maxwell's equations, it has been the electrical field and magnetic field that have gotten all the attention and fame, while the displacement field has been all but hidden. The displacement field has always been seen as little more than a mathematical manipulation, one used to push the equations in line with data. But almost no work has been done in a century and a half to explain the real workings of this displacement field.
...
In fact, we see that Maxwell was on the right track with his vortices, since we require real spins in the displacement field, beneath the magnetic spins in the E/M field of ions. They are not “molecular” in the way we understand molecules now, but they are vortices. Each photon can be thought of and act as a tiny physical vortex, since each photon is spinning. This is what explains the displacement field, not the current dive off into heuristic math. Wikipedia says,
Clearly Maxwell was driving at magnetization even though the same introduction clearly talks about dielectric polarization.
But we now know it is neither. Maxwell wasn't driving at magnetization, nor was he driving at dielectric polarization. He was driving at real sub-magnetic polarization of real particles, which is what my charge photons give us. My charge field theory might be called either magnetization or dielectric polarization, but it is strictly neither. Why? Because both terms are currently used as descriptions of the E/M field, and my charge field is not a part of the E/M field. Although my spinning photons give us both polarization and a spin field (magnetic field), they do so via a sub-level of influence. Again, E/ M applies to a field of ions. Charge applies to a field of photons, and photons are not ions. Since the photons drive the ions, the charge field is at a sub-level beneath the E/M field. The E/M field is only an outcome of the charge field. But because those in the mainstream misunderstood Maxwell's definitions and delineations, they have since conflated the two fields. Because they only have one field, they cannot describe the motions and forces they see in data.

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