Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Fri Nov 28, 2014 2:16 am

Zinc
Atomic Number: 30

240c. Period 6  Why Isn't Hafnium a Noble Gas?
http://milesmathis.com/haf.pdf

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf




In that case, you can see why Zinc is normally +2. Zinc bonds in the top and bottom positions, via the single protons. In the previous diagram of Zinc, it wouldn't bond with Oxygen as a gas, since it would be spinning on the carousel level. Gasses can't bond to one another on the carousel level, for obvious reasons.

OK, let's return to Period 4, to study the elements above Copper. Before we get to the tough ones, I want to briefly show you Germanium, so that you can see it is a candidate for a magic number, supposing we were still interested in such things. There is a huge fall off in density from Copper to Zinc, which means Zinc has begun putting protons in the inner levels, instead of neutrons. Protons weigh a bit less than neutrons, but this isn't the cause of the density loss. The loss is due to the fact that Zinc has only two protons down there, while Copper had six neutrons. This fact is also indicated by the low number of neutrons Zinc has, compared to previous elements. Copper had five more neutrons than Nickel, but Zinc only has two more than Copper.

The density of the elements continues to drop with Gallium and then Germanium, which means these elements also have only the two protons below, in the inner holes. The density drops because these elements add the new mass far from the nuclear center—in the fourth level—which lowers the overall density. So this is the diagram for Germanium


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Fri Nov 28, 2014 2:20 am

Gallium
Atomic Number: 31

?


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Fri Nov 28, 2014 2:21 am

Germanium 
Atomic Number: 32

235. MAGIC NUMBERS in the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/semf.pdf

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf




OK, let's return to Period 4, to study the elements above Copper. Before we get to the tough ones, I want to briefly show you Germanium, so that you can see it is a candidate for a magic number, supposing we were still interested in such things. There is a huge fall off in density from Copper to Zinc, which means Zinc has begun putting protons in the inner levels, instead of neutrons. Protons weigh a bit less than neutrons, but this isn't the cause of the density loss. The loss is due to the fact that Zinc has only two protons down there, while Copper had six neutrons. This fact is also indicated by the low number of neutrons Zinc has, compared to previous elements. Copper had five more neutrons than Nickel, but Zinc only has two more than Copper.
The density of the elements continues to drop with Gallium and then Germanium, which means these elements also have only the two protons below, in the inner holes. The density drops because these elements add the new mass far from the nuclear center—in the fourth level—which lowers the overall density. So this is the diagram for Germanium:

Beautiful, isn't it? That fills some levels evenly, doesn't it? But does it mean Germanium is magic? If it is, we don't know the spell yet. If we needed to create very square fields for some reason, Germanium would be our friend. It and Tellurium.
Now, let us move on up to Selenium and Bromine, which would seem to be a bit of a problem for my diagrams. Why should they be a problem? Because we are running out of slots. Arsenic isn't a problem, since its density is above Germanium. We just make those inner disks blue (leaving an outer one black). But since density drops for both Selenium and Bromine, things initially look bleak for me. We have to put more protons in those inner holes, and I have already said that should add to the density.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Fri Nov 28, 2014 2:28 am

Arsenic 
Atomic Number: 33

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf



Now, let us move on up to Selenium and Bromine, which would seem to be a bit of a problem for my diagrams. Why should they be a problem? Because we are running out of slots. Arsenic isn't a problem, since its density is above Germanium. We just make those inner disks blue (leaving an outer one black). But since density drops for both Selenium and Bromine, things initially look bleak for me. We have to put more protons in those inner holes, and I have already said that should add to the density.




Re-assigning Boltzmann's Constant


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Fri Nov 28, 2014 2:30 am

Selenium
Atomic Number: 34

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf



Now, let us move on up to Selenium and Bromine, which would seem to be a bit of a problem for my diagrams. Why should they be a problem? Because we are running out of slots. Arsenic isn't a problem, since its density is above Germanium. We just make those inner disks blue (leaving an outer one black). But since density drops for both Selenium and Bromine, things initially look bleak for me. We have to put more protons in those inner holes, and I have already said that should add to the density.
You may notice I don't seem too worried, and that is because the answer really isn't that hard, once you take a close look at things. Yes, we have to put all the protons down there, but protons on opposite sides of those inner holes don't act like neutrons. Since the neutrons are acting as stoppers, they fit very close in the holes. And when you have neutrons in opposite holes, they don't push eachother out. Two stoppers opposite one another don't repel, so we had no problem and no side effects when we put a lot of neutrons in those inner holes.
But when we hit Selenium and Bromine, we have to put protons opposite one another in those inner holes. What should we logically expect from that? Well, since I have said many times the protons are acting like fans, pushing charge through the hole in a tight and defined manner, the protons will have to be affected by each other's charge currents. They are going to back one another out of the holes some distance, while remaining in the created charge channel. Like this:

Since those “inner” protons are now pushed off the axis, they no longer add to the density as before. Like additions to the carousel level, they now subtract from density. Being off the axis, they are now spinning with the carousel, and they act like it in many ways. The primary way they act like the carousel level is that they feel a centrifugal effect from the nuclear spin, and the more protons you have in positions like that, the more centrifugal effect. This is why the density goes down for Selenium and Bromine.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Fri Nov 28, 2014 2:32 am

Bromine
Atomic Number: 35

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf



Since those “inner” protons are now pushed off the axis, they no longer add to the density as before. Like additions to the carousel level, they now subtract from density. Being off the axis, they are now spinning with the carousel, and they act like it in many ways. The primary way they act like the carousel level is that they feel a centrifugal effect from the nuclear spin, and the more protons you have in positions like that, the more centrifugal effect. This is why the density goes down for Selenium and Bromine.

Does this strange configuration explain why Bromine is a liquid? It does. Notice that if Bromine had to bond to itself using axis or carousel positions, it couldn't do it. It would have to be a gas, like the noble gasses. It doesn't have any openings out there, you see. All the holes are filled completely. So Bromine can only bond to itself via the inner level. Elements can do that, provided the inner level isn't closed tightly as we saw with Copper. Copper isn't going to be bonding to itself via the inner level holes. But Bromine has three positions open. Each hole where we see a black disk is only half full, so we have three openings. So Bromine can bond back to back on the west side here. Black to black will create a strong bond, which gives us the diatom of Br2. But after that, we have a problem. To bond beyond the diatom, Bromine has to try to bond on the east side of this nucleus. As you can see, it can do that only on the top. No plug can be created on the bottom, since blue meets blue. There are no openings on the bottom. This leaves half the bond hanging, which is a weak bond. Hence the liquid state.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 3:38 am

Krypton 
Atomic Number: 36

243a. Helium4 a Boson? No.
http://milesmathis.com/helboson.pdf





231. HOW TO BUILD URANIUM
http://milesmathis.com/uranium.pdf



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 3:43 am

Rubidium
Atomic Number: 37

230. HOW THE ELEMENTS ARE BUILT
http://milesmathis.com/nuclear.pdf




Now, the question becomes, why can't Lanthanum be built by simply putting a proton in the carousel level, as we would do with Yttrium? It can't, because Yttrium isn't built that way either. As it turns out, Yttrium also has a contraction problem, one the mainstream can't easily explain and doesn't often tell you about. Yttrium doesn't fit in the contraction sequence of Period 5. It has an atomic radius of 180, when it should have an atomic radius of about 185. This indicates that Yttrium is not composed from Krypton, like Rubidium and Strontium are. Like the Lanthanides, its atomic radius indicates a variant structure. But let's go back to Lanthanum to discover its structure first.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 3:45 am

Strontium 
Atomic Number: 38

216. The Charge Profile of Sr2CuO3
http://milesmathis.com/orbiton.pdf




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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 3:49 am

Yttrium 
Atomic Number: 39

233. The LANTHANIDES and breaking madelung rule
http://milesmathis.com/lanthan.pdf



You can now see why Scandium is +3. It is explained at the primary level by the protons, not the electrons. Yttrium and Lanthanum have the same diagram as Scandium, but with Krypton and Xenon bases, respectively. You can also see why we are told we have “a single valence electron in the d shell.” There is no d shell, as I have shown, but the proton on top in my diagram acts to achieve the same thing. That single proton sticking out in the wind acts as the valence.

Noble Gases (Full carousel Alphas)

Period 6  Why Isn't Hafnium a Noble Gas?



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 3:55 am

Zirconium 
Atomic Number: 40

240c. Period 6 Why Isn't Hafnium a Noble Gas?
http://milesmathis.com/haf.pdf



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 3:58 am

Niobium 
Atomic Number: 41

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf

?

That is how the strongest magnet in the world is created. Of course, by analogy, Samarium and Cobalt would require a linkage through both Molybdenum and Boron. Molybdenum would be forced by the applied magnetic field to move its outer protons to the axis, where it would then have three on each end. This three-prong could then plug into both the two-prong of Cobalt and the four-prong of Samarium. If we then needed a link between three and two, we could use Boron as above. Fluorine might work even better than Boron, although being a gas would make it harder to cook into the mix by the current method. The Sm-Co linkage might also be made through Niobium and Beryllium, to similar effect, though of course in that case you would have to make sure your applied field was putting Niobium into the mix with the correct pole up. But since the current method has no problem aligning Boron in the right way, Niobium would probably align the right way naturally as well. These are some off-the-cuff suggestions, and they may create an even stronger magnet than the ones we have now. Having the diagrams helps me see these things more quickly and easily than the mainstream can.

---------
‘Accident’ in lab creates super motor

AN ELECTRIC SCOOTER

with a top speed of 50mph and a range of more than 5(W) miles has been developed by a Japan ese scientist who accidentally discovered what he claims is the’ world’s most magnetic material.

To date, most of the research on electric vehicles has concentrated on developing super- efficient batteries in an attempt to maximise their range and power to weight ratio. How. ever, until now even the most advanced vehicles have required a small battalion of such batteries to achieve a modest performance. The new scooter. developed by SciexCorporat ion of Japan runs on just four ordinary 12-volt car batteries.

“Almost everyone has worked on the battery end of the problem,” says its inventor, Yasunori Takahashi. ‘‘I thought: why not look at the other end — the motor?”

His breakthrough in electromagnetic technology came a few years ago while he was experimenting with new magnetic alloys. Omie of his laboratory staff misread his instructions and added the wrong element to the mix.

“We Japanese often confuse the Roman letters b and d,” said—T’akahashi, - ‘My technician added neodymium (Nd)  instead of niobium (Nb), The t result was extraordinary — suddenly found myself in the presence of the most powerful magnetic material I had ever seen.”

Takahashi subsequently develped a manufacturing system for producing a magnetic powd er that could be formed into anything, from ultra-thin coatings to large permanent magn ets. He now claims to have

produced a magnet with the world’s highest Megagauss Oersted rating — or MgOe. the unit in which magnetism is measured. “Before my discovery, MgQe was the maxim um anyone had achieved; hut my magnet can reach 121) MgOe.” says,Takahashi.

This super-magnetic force is the secret behind the new Sciex scooter’s performance.
Takahashi has redesigned a conventional electric motor and fitted his super-powerful “YT” magnets, resulting in a highly efficient engine that will produce a claimed IS horsep ower from just a few amperes of electricity.

In fact, he claims the motor is so efficient that, when the scooter is throttled back and free-wheeling, the engine becomes a generator, and partly recharges the batteries while on the move, giving the scooter its enormous range.

Michael Laughton. professor of electrical engineering at London University. is imp ressed. “It’s an incredible machine.” lie says. “Takahashi seems, to have developed an extraordinarily efficient electric motor and control system. In principle there’s no reason why it couldn’t he scaled tip br aim electric car.”

Takahashi has a good record in commercial innovation. While at Sony. he developed Beta videotape technology. which became the standard syst em used by the television ind ustry worldwide until it was overtaken by VHS. He n’w has big plans for commercial exploitation of his new magnetic discovery.

‘The YT magnet can he used br any applications where conventional magnets are curr ently uscd — from credit cards to loudspeakers, with a huge potential increase in informal ion-storage capacity and quali ty.” he says.

One novel use for ihc magnet invented by Takahashi is to extend the life of rechargeable batteries. H. magnets have been made into thin inch-wide squares. which, if attached to mobilephone batteries, will double the amount of charge they retain and so last twice as long.
This “battery doubler” is already on the market in Japan where, says Takahashi, the Japanese equivalent of BT has ordered 100,000 of them.

At present the magnetic all oys are manufactured under lic ence in Japan bt last month Takahashi announced his intent ion to setup his primary manuf acturing plant in Britain.
“Britain has lower overh eads than many other count ries and there are hundreds of engineering companies within a few hours’ drive of Lontlon.” he says.

A factory site has already been earmarked In north London. though Takahashi noW requires a £20m investment to develop it properly.

WE SUNDAY TIMES’ 10 DECEMBER 1995
Pulling power: a superior electromagnetic mbtor boosts Sciexs

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/node/25498


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:03 am

Molybdenum 
Atomic Number: 42

240b. PERIOD FOUR of the Periodic Table
http://milesmathis.com/per4.pdf



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:08 am

Technetium 
Atomic Number: 43

229. HOW TO BUILD A NUCLEUS without a Strong Force
http://milesmathis.com/stack.html
236. The NUCLEAR SHELL Model of WIGNER
http://milesmathis.com/wig.pdf

?
A further problem is the explanation of Technetium. I have explained the radioactivity of Technetium using those inner holes again. But the old shell model explains Technetium as “the distance from shell-closure.” In other words, the radioactivity must be due to shells that are very open. Is that what we find? Not at all. Technetium has more protons in the outer shell than the six elements before it (Rubidium to Molybdenum), and more nucleons also. Radioactivity has nothing at all to do with shell closure, and I have shown that with my diagrams. We see how naïve previous models must be to suggest open shells are the cause of radioactivity. If that were the case, all group 1 elements would be radioactive.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:10 am

Ruthenium 
Atomic Number: 44

230. HOW THE ELEMENTS ARE BUILT
http://milesmathis.com/nuclear.pdf

?

If we study the elements with the most stable isotopes, we find much more support for my model. We would expect both Molybdenum and Neodymium to be very stable, since they have semi-complete fourth levels. Tellurium would also be expected to be stable, for the same reason. Ruthenium is a semi-completed fourth level, like Molybdenum, but with the inner level single-filled as well. I discuss Samarium below, and its stability is caused by the same filling of the fourth level. The extreme stability of Dysprosium and Cadmium give us a hint to their structure, leading me to propose they are similar to Tin. Cadmium has the same fourth level as Tin, it just has two less protons below. The stability of Hafnium can be understood once you recognize it is misplaced in group 4. Hafnium should actually be a group 18 variant, making it another completed level. It then is like a larger Tin, but with single protons below instead of alphas.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:12 am

Rhodium
Atomic Number: 45


231. HOW TO BUILD URANIUM

http://milesmathis.com/uranium.pdf

?


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:13 am

Palladium 
Atomic Number: 46

?


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:14 am

Silver 
Atomic Number: 47

232. Why is MERCURY LIQUID?
http://milesmathis.com/mercliq.pdf

93c. The P-N Junction without Holes

http://milesmathis.com/dope.pdf



[Pay no attention to the skinny disks in Silver: I drew that diagram several years ago, and I tend to draw the disks skinnier in the bigger elements so I can fit more in. Just study the architecture of the nuclei. To see what the disks represent, consult my long paper on nuclear diagramming.]
Both these configurations are conductors because both have a differential bottom to top, along the pole. Both have blue disks bottom and black disks top. That is, two protons bottom and one top. The disks acts like little fans, so what this configuration means is that the charge streams know which way to go. There is a strong potential here for through charge going north. See my paper on Period Four for more on this.

So both configurations are conductors. But they aren't the same sort of conductors because we have many important differences in the architecture, as you see. To start with, while Silver has a strong carousel level, Silicon and Boron don't. Boron has no real carousel level at all (or only the hub), while Silicon only has the vertical alphas. It doesn't have the multiple horizontal protons in the 4th carousel level that Silver has, pulling charge out the nuclear equator. This means that although the conductivity of Si-B isn't as strong as Silver (because Silver has a bigger core and more total channeling), it is more linear. Silver has a transverse or equatorial field that Si-B doesn't. This is why Si-B has a low resistance in the forward direction: once you align your Si-B to the field, the through charge moves through very easily, with little loss by the carousel levels


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:20 am

Cadmium
Atomic Number: 48

240c. Period 6 Why Isn't Hafnium a Noble Gas?
http://milesmathis.com/haf.pdf

?



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:22 am

Indium 
Atomic Number: 49

231. HOW TO BUILD URANIUM
http://milesmathis.com/uranium.pdf

?

In fact, Uranium can also be made from a Tin base, since that is how we get Technetium and Rhodium as products in fission. The star builds Uranium from Tin + Molybdenum, with a triple proton link created at any of the six corners. This is a stronger link than the Krypton + Barium link, and it explains why U238 is much more stable than U235. It is U238 that is made from Tin + Molybdenum. If you study the diagram below, you will see why the link is stronger. Tin has almost the same diagram as Molybdenum, but with two protons in each of the outer holes instead of one. This means that wherever we choose to put the link, we will have a three-pronged link. When U238 splits, the Molybdenum may take away an extra prong, making it Technetium. In that case, Indium may be the other product. The prongs can break off in any number of ways, giving us Ruthenium and Cadmium, for instance.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:23 am

Tin 
Atomic Number: 50

235. MAGIC NUMBERS in the Periodic Table
A critique of the Semi-Empirical Mass Formula, with nuclear diagrams.

http://milesmathis.com/semf.pdf



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:24 am

Antimony 
Atomic Number: 51

?

?


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:26 am

Tellurium 
Atomic Number: 52

235. MAGIC NUMBERS in the Periodic Table
A critique of the Semi-Empirical Mass Formula, with nuclear diagrams.
http://milesmathis.com/semf.pdf



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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:28 am

Iodine 
Atomic Number: 53

230. HOW THE ELEMENTS ARE BUILT
http://milesmathis.com/nuclear.pdf

?

To see how it works above Xenon, we actually have to start at Krypton. Krypton is built like Argon, but with Beryllium blocks instead of alphas. But if we start filling in holes like we did with Rubidium, we find that we can add four protons in each hole, not just two like we would have with Potassium. So when we get up to Tellurium, we have a balanced but incomplete structure. We have six outer holes that are only half full, as I showed above. This means that all elements above Iodine have two possible structures. They can be made with Beryllium blocks or Carbon blocks. In other words, they can be built up from a Krypton base or a Xenon base.


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Re: Mathis' Chemistry Graphics

Post by Cr6 on Sat Nov 29, 2014 4:31 am

Xenon 
Atomic Number: 54

242a. Reaction with the Noble Gasses
http://milesmathis.com/xeptf6.pdf




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