Earth Chronology

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Earth Chronology

Post by LloydK on Wed Dec 24, 2014 8:45 pm

Update with Authors

1a. [Origin: Age of Darkness. - DC] [Saturn, Earth, Mars and Venus - EU] [formed by electrical accretion - CC] [outside the solar system - EU.]
1b- [Earth trailed behind comet Saturn as both moved toward the solar system in the Age of Darkness. - DC]
1c- [Earth had oceans and ocean life evolved. - CC]
1d- [A granite planetoid collided with Earth and became a granite supercontinent. - CC]
1e- [Life evolved rapidly on the supercontinent. - GW?]
1f- [*Sedimentary rock developed on top of the supercontinent from floods - SD] [or Saturn flare detritus. - DC]
1g- [Earth's gravity was weak, - EU] [or its atmosphere was thick, - FJ] [so megafauna and megaflora were able to grow. - EU,FJ,TH]

2a. [Golden Age 10,000 ya. Saturn flared up when it entered the heliosphere. - DC]
2b- [Earth lost atmosphere or buoyancy, which killed off the megafauna and megaflora. - FJ]
2c- [This ended the Age of Darkness. - DC]
2d- [When the flaring ended, Venus was first visible on the face of Saturn and Mars on the face of Venus. - DC]
2e- [This means Venus, Mars and Earth were trailing behind Saturn in that order. - DC]
2f- [And the Sun was then first visible as a distant star, which lit up the Saturn system. - DC]
2g- [This began the Golden Age of Saturn. - DC]
2h- [Saturn entered the Kuiper belt and disturbed some of the planetoids. - DC]

3a. [Breakup & Ice Age 5,000 ya. When the Saturn system reached Saturn's present orbit, its 3 trailing planets fell away. - DC]
3b- [Venus became comet-like. - EU, DC]
3c- [Mars encountered the proto-Moon and other objects, leaving craters and rilles on all of them. - EU,CC]
3d- [One large object hit Mars and removed its northern hemisphere surface. - CC]
3e- [Vulcanism formed the Mars shield volcanoes. - CC]
3f- [The Mars canyon formed by rifting and torrential rains, which formed an ocean. - CC]
3g- [Collision debris formed asteroids. - EU?]
3h- [The proto-Moon became Earth's satellite. - DC]
3m- [An asteroid hit Earth's supercontinent, breaking it up and driving the continents apart. - SD]
3n- [*The sliding continents developed mountain ranges and suffered great flooding. - SD,DC]
3o- [As Earth tumbled, the solar wind penetrated close to Earth's surface. - RV]
3p- [Plasmoids in the sky looked like Suns sometimes moving in the wrong direction. - RV]
3q- [Mammoths etc died in Arctic regions from suffocation by dust and from flash freezing. - WB]
3r- [Earth suffered an Ice Age - WB,SD] [as it left the orbit of Saturn and settled into its present orbit, while Mars and Venus also settled into their new orbits. - DC]

4a. [Civilization 4,000 ya. Ancient civilizations developed in Sumeria, Egypt and China. - All]
4b- [There was so much dust in the inner solar system that the Sun and planets appeared reddish. - GG]
4c- [Gradually the space dust mostly cleared out about 2,000 ya. - GG]

Authors
DC: Dwardu Cardona
EU: Dave Talbott, Wal Thornhill, Dwardu Cardona, Ev Cochrane ...
CC: Charles Chandler
GW: Gordon Webb
SD: Shock Dynamics
FJ: Fred Juenemann
TH: Ted Holden
RV: Rens VanderSluijs
WB: Walter Brown
GG: Gary Gilligan

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Re: Earth Chronology

Post by LloydK on Wed Dec 24, 2014 10:03 pm

1d- [A granite planetoid collided with Earth and became a granite supercontinent. - CC]
- The planetoid produced the Moon, as well as the supercontinent.
- The Moon then trailed behind the Earth.

Moon Minerals Formation Environment
While most of the minerals in Moon rocks are found on Earth, they were formed in very different environments. Moon rock shows evidence of formation in an extremely dry setting, with low gravitational influence and very little surrounding oxygen.

Lunar rocks are anhydrous -- they contain no water and there is no evidence of the presence of water in their formation. This is not true of seabed basalts.

Differences Between Moon & Earth Minerals
we have now discovered small differences between the Earth and the Moon. [] the difference [] could be explained by material absorbed by the Earth after the Moon formed

Lunar Composition
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu. Geologically, the Lunar surface material has the following characteristics:
1. The Maria are mostly composed of dark basalts, which form from rapid cooling of molten rock from massive lava flows.
2. The Highlands rocks are largely Anorthosite, which is a kind of igneous rock that forms when lava cools more slowly than in the case of basalts. This implies that the rocks of the Maria and Highlands cooled at different rates from the molten state and so were formed under different conditions.
3. Breccias, which are fragments of different rocks compacted and welded together by meteor impacts, are found in the Maria and the Highlands, but are more common in the latter.
4. Lunar Soils contain glassy globules not commonly found on the Earth. These are probably formed from the heat and pressure generated by meteor impacts.
-  Anorthosites that are common in the Lunar Highlands are not common on the surface of the Earth [except in] The Adirondack Mountains and the Canadian Shield. [] They form the ancient cores of continents on the Earth.

Differences
http://meteorites.wustl.edu. lunar rocks don't contain carbonate minerals or abundant quartz, as do most terrestrial sedimentary rocks. [] no known lunar rock [looks like] sedimentary rock. [] Unlike some terrestrial conglomerates, which resemble lunar breccias, the matrix of lunar breccias is as hard as the clasts. [] Nearly all the aluminum is in plagioclase and nearly all the iron and magnesium are in pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite. [] Most Earth rocks plot below the lunar line because they contain quartz or calcite, which have essentially zero concentrations of FeO, MgO, and Al2O3. [] On the Moon [] there are no rocks rich in quartz or other silica polymorphs* [] among nearly all common lunar rocks calcium concentrations vary by a factor of 2, from 10% to 20% as calcium oxide (CaO).

Oxygen & Titanium
http://www.wired.com. Previous research has established that the oxygen isotope composition of lunar samples is indistinguishable from that of Earth. [] Earth may have exchanged oxygen gas with the magma disk that later formed the Moon. []  The proportion of 50Ti to 47Ti is [] effectively the same as Earth’s and different from elsewhere in the solar system. [] it’s unlikely Earth could have exchanged titanium gas with the magma disk because titanium has a very high boiling point. [] One possibility is that a glancing blow from a passing body left Earth spinning so rapidly that it threw some of itself off into space. []

Oxygen Differences
http://www.scientificamerican.com. Moon rocks contain a tiny bit more of the rare isotope oxygen-17 than do the rocks on Earth. [] They found 12 parts per million more oxygen-17 in the Moon rocks as opposed to the Earth rocks. []  the body that triggered the Moon-forming impact, which some scientists call Theia, may have been chemically similar to a class of meteorites called enstatite chondrites. Those are similar enough to Earth, at least in terms of oxygen, that Theia wouldn’t have left a major imprint in the Moon’s chemistry

Volatiles
http://www.space.com. Water (made of volatile elements hydrogen and oxygen) is the most common volatile species on Earth. [] [There are] small quantities of volatile elements, and fluorine, in tiny mineral droplets of lunar volcanic glass called spherules. [] some lunar minerals are [possibly] as rich in volatile elements as their terrestrial counterparts. [] [Some lunar] apatite crystals [] are very similar to those apatite crystals that grew from 'wet' magmas on Earth

Titanium Differences
http://www.lpi.usra.edu. when one looks at the Moon in the night sky, the dark areas are basalt. The basalts found at the Apollo 11 landing site are generally similar to basalts on Earth and are composed primarily of the minerals pyroxene and plagioclase. One difference is that the Apollo 11 basalts contain much more of the element titanium than is usually found in basalts on Earth. The basalts found at the Apollo 11 landing site [] were formed from at least two chemically different magma sources.

Impacts
Moon rocks ejected by asteroid impacts have landed on Earth. [] one was found in Antarctica.

Impact Breccias
The heat and pressure of [] impacts sometimes fuses small rock fragments into new rocks, called breccias. []

Lunar Highlands Plagioclase
The lunar highlands are primarily a light-colored rock known as anorthosite, which consists primarily of the mineral plagioclase. It is very rare to find rocks on Earth that are virtually pure plagioclase.

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Re: Earth Chronology

Post by LloydK on Wed Dec 24, 2014 10:31 pm

CRUST
Basalt = Pyroxene (Augite) + Plagioclase + Olivine + possibly glass
Granite = Feldspar + Quartz + Mica + Amphibole

Basalt
- Pyroxene (Augite) - Mg2(Si,Al)2O6
- Plagioclase
-- Albite(Plag) ------- NaAlSi3O8
-- Anorthite(Plag) -- CaAl2Si2O8
- Olivine -------------- Mg2SiO4
- possibly glass ----- SiO2

Granite
- Feldspar = Microcline/Orthoclase or Albite or Anorthite
-- Microcline -------- KAlSi3O8
-- Orthoclase ------- KAlSi3O8
-- Albite(Plag) ------ NaAlSi3O8
-- Anorthite(Plag) -- CaAl2Si2O8
- Quartz -------------- SiO2
- Mica ----------------- X2Y4-6Z8O20(OH,F)4
-- X=(Na,K,Ca,Ba,Rb,Cs) Y=(Li,Mg,Al,Ti,Cr,Mn,Fe,etc.) Z=(Al,Si,Ti,Fe3+)
- Amphibole - NaCa2(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH)2

Sedimentary Rock
70% Shale        = Clay-Kaolinite + Quartz + Calcite
15% Sandstone = Quartz + Granite-Feldspar
15% Limestone = Calcite + Aragonite
- Kaolinite - Al2Si2O5(OH)4
- Quartz --- SiO2
- Granite-Feldspar
- Calcite --- Ca2(CO3)2




LIST OF MINERALS
Formula -- Mineral --- AlSilOx <? ---- (Al,Sil)Ox <<?

C -- Graphite

NaCl -- Halite
Na(AlSi)O4 -- Nepheline <
NaAlSi3O8 -- Plagioclase: Albite <
Na(Al,Si)4O8 -- Plagioclase <
Na3K(AlSiO4)4 -- Nepheline <
Na8Al6Si6O24Cl2 -- Sodalite <
Na2Ca4Al10Si26O72•30H2O -- Stilbite <
Na2(Mg3Al2)Si8O22(OH)2 -- Glaucophane <
NaLi3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 -- Tourmaline <
NaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 -- Tourmaline <
NaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 -- Tourmaline <
NaFe3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)4(OH)5 -- Tourmaline <
Na,Ca,(Mg,Fe),Al,Si,O,(OH) -- Hornblende <
Na2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2 -- Hornblende <<
NaCa2(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH)2 -- Amphibole <<
X2Y4-6Z8O20(OH,F)4 -- Mica
X=(Na,K,Ca,Ba,Rb,Cs) Y=(Li,Mg,Al,Ti,Cr,Mn,Fe,etc.) Z=(Al,Si,Ti,Fe3+)

Mg2SiO4 -- Olivine <<
Mg2Si2O6 -- Enstatite <<
Mg2(Si,Al)2O6 -- Augite
Mg3Al2Si3O12 -- Garnet <
Mg3Si4O10(OH)2 -- Talc <<
Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 -- Serpentine <<
Mg6Si4O10(OH)8 -- Chlorite <<
Mg3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6 -- Chlorite
Mg2(Al,Fe3+)3Al2O(SiO4)2(OH)5 -- Chloritoid <

Al2O3 -- Corundum <<
Al2SiO5 -- Andalusite <
Al2SiO5 -- Sillimanite  <
Al2SiO5 -- Kyanite <
Al2SiO5 -- Sillimanite <
Al2(Si,Al)2O6 -- Augite
Al2Si2O5(OH)4 -- Kaolinite <
Al2Be3Si6O18 -- Beryl <

SiO2 -- Quartz <<
SiO2•nH2O -- Opal <<

S -- Sulfur

KAlSi3O8 -- Microcline <
KAlSi3O8 -- Orthoclase <
KAlSi3O8 -- Sanidine <
K(AlSi)O4 -- Nepheline <
K,Ca,(Mg,Fe),Al,Si,O,(OH) -- Hornblende <<
KAl2(AlSi3)O10(OH)2 -- Muscovite <<
KMg3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2 -- Biotite <<
KFe3(AlSi3)O10(OH)2 -- Biotite <<

Ca2(CO3)2 -- Calcite
Ca2(CO3)2 -- Aragonite
CaMg(CO3)2 -- Dolomite
CaMgSi2O6 -- Diopside <<
CaSO4•2H2O -- Gypsum
Ca2Si2O6 -- Wollastonite <<
Ca(Al,Si)4O8 -- Plagioclase <<
CaAl2Si2O8 -- Plagioclase: Anorthite <
Ca2(Fe,Mg)5Si8O22(OH)2 -- Actinolite <<
Ca3Al2Si3O12 -- Garnet <
Ca,(Mg,Fe,Al),Si,O -- Augite <<
Ca2(Si,Al)2O6 -- Augite <<
CaF2 -- Fluorite
Ca5(PO4)3(OH,F,Cl) -- Apatite
Ca2Al2(Al,Fe3+)OOH(Si3O11) -- Epidote <
Ca2–3(Mg,Fe,Al)5(Al,Si)8O22(OH,F)2 -- Hornblende <<

Mn3Al2Si3O12 -- Garnet <
Mn2(Al,Fe3+)3Al2O(SiO4)2(OH)5 -- Chloritoid <

Fe2O3 -- Hematite
Fe3O4 -- Magnetite
FeS2 -- Pyrite
Fe-S -- Pyrrhotite
Fe2SiO4 -- Olivine <<
Fe3Al2Si3O12 -- Garnet <
Fe6Si4O10(OH)8 -- Chlorite <<
Fe3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2·(Mg,Fe)3(OH)6 -- Chlorite <<
(Fe2,3)2(Si,Al)2O6 -- Augite <<
Fe2Al9O(SiO4)5(OH)2 -- Staurolite <
Fe2+,Mg,Mn,Al,Si,O,(OH) -- Chloritoid <<
Fe2+2(Al,Fe3+)3Al2O(SiO4)2(OH)5 -- Chloritoid <
FeTiO3 -- Ilmenite
FeCr2O4 -- Chromite
FeAsS -- Arsenopyrite

Cu -- Copper
Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 -- Malachite
Cu3(CO3)2(OH) -- Azurite
CuFeS2 -- Chalcopyrite
Cu5FeS4 -- Bornite

ZnS -- Sphalerite
Sb2S3 -- Stibnite
MoS2 -- Molybdenite
HgS -- Cinnabar
PbS -- Galena

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