New understanding of electromagnetism could enable 'antennas on a chip'

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New understanding of electromagnetism could enable 'antennas on a chip'

Post by Cr6 on Wed Apr 08, 2015 11:24 pm

New understanding of electromagnetism could enable 'antennas on a chip'
(more at link)

In new results published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the researchers have proposed that electromagnetic waves are generated not only from the acceleration of electrons, but also from a phenomenon known as symmetry breaking. In addition to the implications for wireless communications, the discovery could help identify the points where theories of classical electromagnetism and quantum mechanics overlap.

In dielectric aerials, the medium has high permittivity, meaning that the velocity of the radio wave decreases as it enters the medium," said Dr Dhiraj Sinha, the paper's lead author. "What hasn't been known is how the dielectric medium results in emission of electromagnetic waves. This mystery has puzzled scientists and engineers for more than 60 years."
Working with researchers from the National Physical Laboratory and Cambridge-based dielectric antenna company Antenova Ltd, the Cambridge team used thin films of piezoelectric materials, a type of insulator which is deformed or vibrated when voltage is applied. They found that at a certain frequency, these materials become not only efficient resonators, but efficient radiators as well, meaning that they can be used as aerials.

The researchers determined that the reason for this phenomenon is due to symmetry breaking of the electric field associated with the electron acceleration. In physics, symmetry is an indication of a constant feature of a particular aspect in a given system. When electronic charges are not in motion, there is symmetry of the electric field.
Symmetry breaking can also apply in cases such as a pair of parallel wires in which electrons can be accelerated by applying an oscillating electric field. "In aerials, the symmetry of the electric field is broken 'explicitly' which leads to a pattern of electric field lines radiating out from a transmitter, such as a two wire system in which the parallel geometry is 'broken'," said Sinha.

The researchers found that by subjecting the piezoelectric thin films to an asymmetric excitation, the symmetry of the system is similarly broken, resulting in a corresponding symmetry breaking of the electric field, and the generation of electromagnetic radiation.

Microantenna. Credit: University of Cambridge
The electromagnetic radiation emitted from dielectric materials is due to accelerating electrons on the metallic electrodes attached to them, as Maxwell predicted, coupled with explicit symmetry breaking of the electric field.
"If you want to use these materials to transmit energy, you have to break the symmetry as well as have accelerating electrons - this is the missing piece of the puzzle of electromagnetic theory," said Amaratunga. "I'm not suggesting we've come up with some grand unified theory, but these results will aid understanding of how electromagnetism and quantum mechanics cross over and join up. It opens up a whole set of possibilities to explore."

The future applications for this discovery are important, not just for the mobile technology we use every day, but will also aid in the development and implementation of the Internet of Things: ubiquitous computing where almost everything in our homes and offices, from toasters to thermostats, is connected to the internet. For these applications, billions of devices are required, and the ability to fit an ultra-small aerial on an electronic chip would be a massive leap forward.

Piezoelectric materials can be made in thin film forms using materials such as lithium niobate, gallium nitride and gallium arsenide. Gallium arsenide-based amplifiers and filters are already available on the market and this new discovery opens up new ways of integrating antennas on a chip along with other components.
"It's actually a very simple thing, when you boil it down," said Sinha. "We've achieved a real application breakthrough, having gained an understanding of how these devices work."


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Re: New understanding of electromagnetism could enable 'antennas on a chip'

Post by LongtimeAirman on Sat Apr 11, 2015 3:30 pm

Cr6, I got my steak knife.

If I read correctly… Studying the radiation of small antennas comprised of piezoelectric materials, Cambridge University researchers believe that antennas can be integrated onto chips. “These ultra-small antennas - the so-called 'last frontier' of semiconductor design - would be a massive leap forward for wireless communications.”

I thought fractal antennas had already captured that distinction? As the report notes, antennas created from Dielectric materials are widely used today for communications. Nevertheless, how they can be used at all has been unexplained for more than 60 years. The researchers say that electromagnetics and quantum mechanics are brought together when examining the mechanisms of electron acceleration and something new – Symmetry Breaking of the electric field. Specifically, they noticed that any asymmetric excitation in the dielectic material would result in radiation, such as any change in the electric field where the “parallel geometry” is “broken”.

Current mainstream possible explanations are not mentioned. We see only speculation from expected results. Symmetry breaking and electron acceleration joins E/M and QM?  They must be theoretical physicists. Symmetry breaking, a favorite QM concept, can cover a lot of theoretical ground. Still, it’s hard to believe that this is the culmination of a 60 year search. Where’s the meat?

Electromagnetics was developed primarily from the observation of the behavior of electricity and magnetism in conductors. Electrons were thought to be the charge carriers. Insulators contained no free electrons, thus there couldn’t be current flow, and radiation is clearly impossible.

From the Mathis perspective, we know that there is probably no way to reconcile E/M and QM, starting with the QM belief that photons are virtual. I don't need to get any further into QM than that.

Instead, Miles has described an ever present, real photon Charge Field which constantly recycles through all matter. When conductors in a voltage circuit recycle photons, those photons drive available electrons within the photon charge streams created with the circuit. It’s easy to see how it was believed that electron current was primary. When insulators recycle and radiate photons within that same circuit, no electron flow is detected, but the charge flow of photons is still present. Dielectrics do radiate, but E/M radiation is only detectable when electrons, ions, or even some atoms are present, and in motion, thus manifestly revealing the true, underlying photonic charge field.

Symmetry Breaking to the rescue? Not.


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